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[传统文化·节日]腊八节

欧阳永志 综合整理 2014年01月08日 报道 浏览次数:

       

       

 

  labajie,sucheng“laba”,hanzuchuantongjieri,minjianliuchuanzhechi“labazhou”,paolabasuan(youdedifangshi“labafan”)defengsu。zaihenandengdi,labazhouyoucheng“dajiafan”,shijinianminzuyingxiongyuefeideyizhongjierishisu。

幸运28网站  labashigudaihuanqingfengshou、ganxiezuxianheshenling(baokuomenshen、hushen、zhaishen、zaoshen、jingshen)dejisiyishi,xiadaichenglariwei“jiaping”,shangdaiwei“qingsi”,zhoudaiwei“dala”;yinzaishieryuejuxing,guchenggaiyueweilayue,chenglajizheiyitianweilari。xianqindelarizaidongzhihoudedisangexuri。labajieshiyonglaijisizuxianheshenling,qiqiufengshouhejixiangdejieri,houlaidonghanfojiaochuanru,weilekuodazaibentudeyingxianglizhufuhuichuantongwenhuabalabajiedingweifochengdaori。

  起源

  “la”dehanyiyousan: yiyue“lazhe,jieye”,yuyouxinjiujiaotideyisi(《suishu·liyizhi》jizai);eryue“lazhetonglie”,zhitianliehuoquqinshouhaojizujishen,“la”cong“rou”pang,jiushiyongrou“dongji”;sanyue“lazhe,zhuyiyingchun”。labajieyinlarierlai,shinonglilayuezuizhongdadejieri,riqiweilayuechuba,gudaichengwei“lari”,sucheng“labajie”。

  labajieyouchenglariji、labaji、wanghoula,yuanlaigudaihuanqingfengshou、ganxiezuxianheshenling(baokuomenshen、hushen、zhaishen、zaoshen、jingshen)dejisiyishi,chujizujingshendehuodongwai,wushuhuodongdelayuejiguquyizhisuzaihunanxinhuadengdiqurengyouliucun。 houyanhuachengjinianfozushijiamounichengdaodezongjiaojieri。xiadaichenglariwei“jiaping”,shangdaiwei“qingsi”,zhoudaiwei“dala”;yinzaishieryuejuxing,guchenggaiyueweilayue,chenglajizheiyitianweilari。xianqindelarizaidongzhihoudedisangexuri,nanbeichaokaishicaigudingzailayuechuba。《shuowen》zai: “dongzhihousanxurilajibaishen。”kejian,dongzhihoudisangexuricengshilari。houyouyufojiaojieru,larigaizaishieryuechuba,zicixiangyanchengsu。

  习俗

  祭祀

  yingshao《fengsutong》yun: “《lichuan》: lazhe,lieye,yantianliequqinshou,yijisiqizuye。huoyue: lazhe,jieye,xingujiaojie,gudajiyibaogongye。”qiqiyuanshenzao,《liji·jiaotesheng》jizai: “yiqishishiweila。layezhe,suoye,suishieryue,hejuwanwuersuoxiangzhiye。”《shiji·busanhuangbenji》yeshuo: “yandishennongshiyiqichuweitianshi,guweilaji,yibaotiandi”。xiadaichenglarijiwei“jiaping”, yinyue“qingsi”,zhouyue“dala”,handaigaiwei“la”。

  jisideduixiangfanba: xianseshenshennong、siseshenhouji、nongshentianguanzhishen、youbiaoqishenshichuangtianjianlushe、kailu、huajiangjiezhiren、maohushen、fangshendifang、shuiyongshenshuigou、kunchongshen。xianqindelajirizaidongzhihoudisangexuri,nanbeichaoyihouzhujiangudingzailayuechuba。daoletangsong,cijieyoubeimengshangshenfosecai。xiangchuanshijiamounichengfozhiqian,jueyukuxing,ehundaodi。yimuyangnvyizaliangchanyiyeguo,yongqingquanzhuzhoujiangqijiuxing。shijiamounizaiputishuxiakusi,zhongzaishieryuebaridedaochengfo。congcifomendingciriwei“fochengdaori”,songjingjinian,xiangyanchengjie。daolemingqing,jingshengongfogengshiqudaijisizuling、huanqingfengshouhequyirangzai,erchengweilabajiedezhuxuanlv。qijiesuzhuyaoshiaozhu、zengsong、pinchanglabazhou,bingjuxingqingfengjiashi。tongshixuduorenjiazicilakaichunjiedexumu,mangyushanianzhu、dadoufu、jiaozhifengyularou,caigounianhuo,“nian”deqifenzhujiannonghou。

  腊八粥

  腊八粥也叫“七宝五味粥”。我国喝腊八粥的历史,已有一千多年。最早开始于宋代。每逢腊八这一天,不论是朝廷、官府、寺院还是黎民百姓家都要做腊八粥。到了清朝,喝腊八粥的风俗更是盛行。在宫廷,皇帝、皇后、皇子等都要向文武大臣、侍从宫女赐腊八粥,并向各个寺院发放米、果等供僧侣食用。在民间,家家户户也要做腊八粥,祭祀祖先;同时,合家团聚在一起食用,馈赠亲朋好友。中国各地腊八粥的花样,争奇竞巧,品种繁多。其中以北平的最为讲究,搀在白米中的物品较多,如红枣、莲子、核桃、栗子、杏仁、松仁、桂圆、榛子、葡萄、白果、菱角、青丝、玫瑰、红豆、花生……总计不下二十种。腊八粥熬好之后,要先敬神祭祖。之后要赠送亲友,一定要在中午之前送出去。最后才是全家人食用。吃剩的腊八粥,保存着吃了几天还有剩下来的,却是好兆头,取其“有余”的意义。

  labazhouzaiminjianhaiyouwushudezuoyong。jiaruyuanzilizhongzhehuahuiheguoshu,yeyaozaizhiganshangtumoyixielabazhou,xiangxinlainianduojieguoshi。

  腊八蒜

  paolabasuanshibeifang,youqishihuabeidiqudeyigexisu。gumingsiyi,jiushizaiyinlilayuechubadezheitianlaipaozhisuan。qishicailiaofeichangjiandan,jiushicuhedasuanbaner。zuofayeshijiqijiandan,jiangbolepidesuanbanerfangdaoyigekeyimifengdeguanzi,pingzizhileiderongqilimian,ranhoudaorucu,fengshangkoufangdaoyigelengdedifang。manmandi,paozaicuzhongdesuanjiuhuibianlv,zuihouhuibiandetongtibilvde,rutongfeicuibiyu。

  吃冰

  labaqianyitian,renmenyibanyonggangpenyaoshuijiebing,dengdaolelabajiejiutuopenbingbingbabingqiaochengsuikuai。jushuozheitiandebinghenshenqi,chiletazaiyihouyinianbuhuiduziteng。

  腊八豆腐

  “labadoufu”shianhuiqianxianminjianfengweitechan,zaichunjieqianxidelaba,jinonglishieryuechubaqianhou,qianxianjiajiahuhudouyaoshaizhidoufu,minjianjiangzheizhongziranshaizhidedoufuchengzuo“labadoufu”。

  腊八面

  woguobeifangyixiebuchanhuoshaochandamidedifang,renmenbuchilabazhou,ershichilabamian。getianyonggezhongguo、shuzuochengsaozi,bamiantiaoganhao,daolayuechubazaochenquanjiachilabamian。

  民间传说

  佛祖修行

幸运28网站  fojiaodechuangshizheshijiamounibenshiguyindubeibujiapiluoweiguo(jinniboerjingnei)jingfanwangdeerzi,tajianzhongshengshoushenglaobingsidengtongkuzhemo,youbumandangshipoluomendeshenquantongzhi,sheqiwangwei,chujiaxiudao。chuwushouhuo,houjingliuniankuxing,yulayuebari,zaiputishuxiawudaochengfo。zaizheiliuniankuxingzhong,meirijinshiyimayimi。hourenbuwangtasuoshoudekunan,yumeinianlayuechubachizhouyizuojinian。“laba”jiuchengle“fozuchengdaojinianri”。

  朱元璋受难

  mingtaizuzhuyuanzhangxiaoshihoujialihenqiong,bianjiyijiacaizhufangniu。youyitianfangniuguilaishiguoyidumuqiao,niuyihuadiexialeqiao,jiangtuidieduan。laocaizhuqijibaihuai,bianbataguanjinyijianfangzilibujifanchi。zhuyuanzhangedegouqiang,huranfaxianwuliyouyishudong,bakaiyikan,yuanlaishilaoshudeyigeliangcang,limianyoumi、youdou,haiyouhongzao。tabazheixiedongxihezaiyiqizhuleyiguozhou,chiqilaishifenxiangtiankekou。houlaizhuyuanzhangdanglehuangdi,youxiangqilezheijianshier,bianjiaoyuchuaoleyiguogezhongliangdouhunzaiyiqidezhou。chidezheiyitianzhenghaoshilayuechuba,yincijiujiaolabazhou。

  赤豆打鬼

  腊八节来自“赤豆打鬼”的风俗。传说上古五帝之一的颛顼氏,三个儿子死后变成恶鬼,专门出来惊吓孩子。古代人们普遍相信迷信,害怕鬼神,认为大人小孩中风得病、身体不好都是由于疫鬼作祟。这些恶鬼天不怕地不怕,单怕赤()幸运28网站豆,故有“赤豆打鬼”的说法。所以,在腊月初八这一天以红小豆、赤小豆熬粥,以祛疫迎祥。

 

责任编辑: 欧阳永志
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标签: 传统文化 腊八 节日
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